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Azerbaijan Embroiderirs
Sazyani (applique). 19th century

     The techniques and compositions of Azerbaijan embroideries have reached us through the centuries, The Italian traveller Marco Polo (13th century) noted the beauty of silk wares from Shemakha and Barda.
     The English merchant and traveller Anthony Jenkinson (16th century) who had visited the local ruler in his summer residence marvelled at its splendour.
     "The king was sitting in a rich tent embroidered in silk and gold", he wrote, adding that the ruler's garments were decorated with pearls and gems.
     Embroideries were made on locally produced canaus, darai or velvet. The art prospered in Shemakha, Basgal, Gyanja, Sheki, Shusha and other Azerbaijan towns.

     The more popular and widespread type of embroidery in Azerbaijan were gold stitch, satin-stitch, chain-stitch, "bird's eye" technique, the use of spangles, glass beads and stamped plaques, quilting, applique, spiral and fillet work.
     Gold stitch on a very tight fabric is the oldest type. The embroideries used factory-made gold or silver threads. This type of embroidery was called gyulya-batyn.
     Chain-stitch type was widespread among the silk embroidery. In the 19th century the town of Sheki was the main producer of chain-stitch embroideries.
HISTORY | Views: 702 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011



Azerbaijan Art of Carpet Making
"Kilirn" Shirvan group.
Azerbaijan, beginning of the XX century.
Wool, hand made, 303xl89sm. density 70x90
Azerbaijan State Carpet and
National Applied An Museum
      Have a glance over Azerbaijan Republic, situated in the south-eastern part of the Caucasus, on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Eternal spaciousness and meadows, snowy tops of mountains and sandy seashores stretch before our eyes.
      Fertile soil, mild climate and warm sun rays have determined favourable conditions for flora. Almost each out of 6000 species of plants found on the territory of Azerbaijan has medical properties. For centuries Azerbaijan had been a country of various handicrafts, particularly carpet-making.
      Carpet-making is one of the ancient fields of the decorative-applied art of Azerbaijan. According to archaeological excavations in the territory of Azerbaijan and to literature sources, carpet-making had been conceived in ancient times.
      Carpets and carpet-ware made in Azerbaijan had repeatedly been glorified in historical books, classic and folk literature.
      Magically playing, the colours of carpets absorbed ruby brightness of pome-granate, golden brilliance of quince, copper of saffron and lilac tints of grapes.) Inexhaustible richness of colours, inimitable in its beauty interlacement of patterns, flight of artistic fantasy and consummate skill- that is Azerbaijan carpet.
      According to the historical sources, Azerbaijan was one of the most important centres of pile and flat-woven carpets production in the East in Middle Ages.
      Facts confirm, that north-eastern part of Azerbaijan was a centre of high quality carpets production in the VI-VII centuries.
      Famous Chinese traveller Khuan-Tesank, who visited Iran in the VII century, wrote in his memoirs: "Azerbaijan is one of the largest centres of the carpet-making".

HISTORY | Views: 1120 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011




Archaeological Monuments
Grey pottery boot
- Shaped vessels with
white paste incrustation
(11-9th cc. B.C.).
     The ancient monuments of Azerbaijani culture show that its roots lie in hoary past. Evidence of this is the cave drawings discovered in Gobustan, the Absheron peninsula, Kelbadzhar and Gemigaya in Ordubad district.
     A special scientific interest is shown in two stone moulds for casting bronze articles, the evidence that the bronze implements and weapons discovered in Azerbaijani excavation sites were chiefly of local make.
     This fact has been confirmed by spectral analysis.




Archaeological Monuments
Grey pottery cencer
(10- 9th cc. B.C.).
Arrowheads (10- 9th cc. B.C)
.Bronze.
     In burial grounds and sites of former settlements dating to the 4th-3rd cc. B.C. there have been discovered numerous implements and weapons of iron.
     Attention is drawn to a large collection of lusterware and glazed ceramics discovered at excavation sites in Balakan, Baku, Barda, Ganja, Shemaha, all existing from medieval times.
     Glazed ceramics from these cities bears the distinctive traits of that period and embraces in terms of territory a wide range of Oriental countries.
     At the same time it has many local features.
     Many items boast a virtuoso technique and subtle elegance which make them veritable genres of Azerbaijani applied art.
     Many glazed dishes and cups bear paleographic inscriptions dating to the 9th-12th cc., the golden age of the art of ceramics.
     They have preserved several names of ceramics masters of those days, although unfortunately most of them have remained unknown.

HISTORY | Views: 560 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011



Antique and Medieval Coins
Arabian Caliphat,
anonym, Arran,
89 A.H.. dirham. Silver.
      Judging from the local finds, it was in the days of Alexander the Great that coins made their first appearance on the territory of Azerbaijan.
      These were silver coins - drachmas and tetradrachmas - of the great conqueror himself. Alongside the broad circulation of Hellenistic coins in ancient Azerbaijan - Atropatheneum and Caucasian Albania - the mintage of domestic means of circulation silver coins imitating those of Alexander the Great and the kings of Seleucia and Parthia - was launched here since the 3rd century B.C.
      The conquest of Azerbaijan by the Arabs in the 7th century was marked by an advancement of money circulation and increase in intensity of money minting. From the second half of the 9th century A. D: The coinage, in particular, silverirhams of such feudal Azerbaijan states as those of the Shirvanshahs-Mazyadids (in Shirvan), the Sajids, the Salarids, the Ravvadids, and the Sheddadids (in Arran) not only met the requirements of the domestic market of Azerbaijan, but also played the role of international money alongside the Caliphate's coins In the 15th-16th centuries Azerbaijan economy and culture blossomed forth anew. High-standard coins tangas of the Shirvan-shahs circulated throughout the whole of Transcaucasus, playing the role of a universal medium of payment. In the south of the country, in Arrant and Azerbaijan, several states sprang up one after another under the aegis of the Turkic dynasties of Gara-goyunlu and Ag-goyunlu, and the Sefevids, which minted not only silver but also gold coins.
      After the formation of the Sefevid state in the early 16th century, objective conditions were created there for the development of productive forces and the shaping up of spiritual values.
      The monetary system of the Sefevids based on a heavyweight 9.4-gramme silver unit reflected in a certain sense the economic and political might of that state.


HISTORY | Views: 615 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011

Economy

Azerbaijan is a diversified industrial country. After the USSR collapsed, it entered the market economy from the planed socialist system. The Republic has been developing in balanced development and stable increasing speed since 1994-2003. The theoretical and methodological fundamentals of this development established on the policy carried out by the national leader and builder of Azerbaijan Republic Heydar Aliyev.
   In 1960s, Azerbaijan was in the list of the most undeveloped Republics within the Union for its growth level on social-economic indicators and synthetic indices per head. Coming to power in 1969, Heydar Aliyev established the economical basis of present independence in planed economic system taking into consideration the economical potential, social and cultural needs of development. He created economical, organizational basis and development factors for the growth of Azerbaijan.

ECONOMY | Views: 597 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011



History


     Azerbaijan is one of the ancient countries in the world. Primitive men had inhabited in Azerbaijan since the existence of initial periods of humanity. Primitive man is considered to live 1,5 million years ago. Azikh cave is considered to be the third settlement of man for its antiquity.
    Ancient people living in Azerbaijan during the Middle Paleolithic Age had spread out wide territories. During the Upper Paleolithic Age, primitive men had lived in caves in different districts of Azerbaijan and protected themselves from natural diseases and attacks of wild animals. Before the Christ (B.C.) since 12th millennium, a new period had began in the development of tribal community in Azerbaijan territory. Arrows and bows had been invented during the Mesolite Age. Cattle breeding and tillage fields - farming had been created during the Neolith Age. During the Early Bronze Age (from the second half of fourth millennium to the end of the third millennium B.C.) the number of Azerbaijan population had increased, and there had been created kins of united tribes. Tribes and kins living in Azerbaijan territory during the Middle Bronze Age, united in the level of great kin unions. During The Last Bronze Age and the First Iron Age, study of art and pottery took a special place in Azerbaijan. The first signs of civilized society in Azerbaijan are considered to emerge in the third millennium. State structures like Aratta, Lullubi, and Kuti had been founded in the southern area of Azerbaijan during these periods. In the beginning of first millenium B.C., the state of Manna had been established in the South Azerbaijan. People of Manna believed in natural phenomenon, the sun and the moon. In the year of 321 B.C., Midia had become an independent state. At the beginning of sixth millennium B.C., Manna had been conquered by the state of Midia. From the beginning of the 8th century B.C. kimmer, skif and sack kins made marches to ancient lands of Azerbaijan, Front Asia. At the end of the 8th century, Azerbaijan was the part of the Empires of Midia and Ahamani.
      In the 4th century B.C., the state of Atropatena in the South of Azerbaijan the majority of people of which mainly consisted of Turkish ethnos and the state of Albania in the North of Azerbaijan had been created. After creation of these states, the process of creating a single public had begun in whole Azerbaijan. In the middle of three and seventh centuries, Azerbaijan was the part of the Sasani Empire. During the power of Sasani Zoroastrianism had become a Ruling Religion. The Power of Mehranis’ dynasty had began to rule in Albania at the beginning of the seventh century. This dynasty had been created in Girdiman province of Albania. The governor of Albania Javanshir (636-681 years) had become the governer of whole Albania. In 651 Arab Caliphate put an end to Sasani state. Islam religion created in Azerbaijan. In the year of 816 Babek began to rule Khurram movement, and in August 26, 837 after the last fights for Bezz castle Khurram movement was defeated. After the slavery continued until 600 years in Azerbaijan, the local states of Shirvanshahs, Sajis, Salaris, Revvads, Shaddadis’ had been created. Since the end of nineth century predatory marches of Slavs to Caspian lateral provinces has begun. In 914 Slavic armed workers detachments were destroyed by Turkish Moslem troops.

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The Old City of Icheri Sheher occupies 22 hectares in the center of Baku. It hosts over 50 historical and architectural monuments from various eras. The Palace of Shirvanshakhs, the Maiden Tower and Synyg Gala (The Broken Tower) are among the monuments which survived till present day.

 




CAPITAL | Views: 538 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011


Fire Temple - Ateshgah

In early history Azerbaijan was called the "land of the sacred fire”. Although the "everlasting fire” mentioned by early travelers such as Alexandre Dumas was due to the gas and oil deposits erupting from the earth, it became surrounded by legend and mystery. Some 2,600 years ago, Zarathustra was formulating Zoroastrianism, one of the first major monotheistic religions. His idea to use fire as a metaphor for the mysteries of God probably came from witnessing the spontaneous flames that rise so eerily from Azerbaijan's Absheron Peninsula. Today some such fires still burn. Most notable is Yanar Dagh near Mammedli, where a small hillside is constantly and naturally aflame. 

On Absheron there were many temples of Fire as well. From their variety the most famous is the well-preserved temple Ateshgah ("the Fire Place") in Surakhany, located 20 kilometers east of the town center. The temple was built over a pocket of natural gas that fuelled a vent providing an 'eternal' fire. This kind of use of fire in Zoroastrian temples led to the followers of Zoroaster (Zarathustra). 


CAPITAL | Views: 471 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011


Towers of Absheron


In the XI-XIII centuries in connection with the consolidation of the Shirvanshahs in the territory of the Apsheron Peninsula a great construction work was carried out. Among the buildings of that time the towers and castles hold a special place; they served as reliable strongholds for the feudal lords in the intestine wars, also as shelters and places of defence during the foreign invasions. Particularly this question was keenly raised in the XII century, when Apsheron was exposed to the attacks of the Russian buccaneers from the sea. Thus in 1175 Shirvanshah Akhistan I repulsed several raids of the Russians, who attacked on 73 vessels.



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Sabael Castle


In 1235 Shirvanshah Fariburz III had a fortification built on one of the rocky islands of the Baku bay which was subsequently called the Sabael Castle, Shahri Saba, Shahri Nau, the city under water, the caravanserai, the Bail rocks, etc. Wrapped in legends, the castle is completely under water at present and is about 350 meters distant from the shore.


Sabael Castle



CAPITAL | Views: 533 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011