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THE FIRST INHABITANTS OF AZERBAIJAN

The objective of archeology is to study ancient peoples' appearance, their development and formation. Archeology attempts to familiarize modern humans with the ancient past of humankind through the material finds of culture remnants.

Comprehensive evidence of material culture that is related to the time of the first inhabitants was found during archeological excavations in the territory of Azerbaijan. As a result, Azerbaijan was included in the list of countries which hosted the first sites of ancient people. The most ancient artifacts related to the appearance of the first primitive people in Azerbaijan from 1.7-1,8 million years ago have recently been found in the country.

Within the last fifty years the complex research, conducted in Azerbaijan, discovered the patterns of material culture and comprehensive scientific materials for the exploration of the history of the appearance, formation and evolution of ancient people. On the basis of discovered scientific materials the distant past, the initial stages of evolution of the first people and the characteristic features of the patterns of the material culture of our ancestors are being studied and explored.

Scientific research conducted by Azerbaijani and German scientists proved that primitive people appeared on the territory of Azerbaijan 2 million years ago. Yet in the period before 1950 the notion of the settlement of ancient people in Azerbaijan had been rejected. Yet in recent years the archeological research conducted by Azeri archeologists proved the groundlessness of such statements and the existence and formation of ancient people on the territory of the country by means of scientific materials. At the same time the civilization was of a specific kind on the territory of Azerbaijan.


HISTORY | Views: 1067 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 10.05.2011



In Azerbaijan copper ware were produced with great mastership from local ores in its ancient and medieval cities, among them Baku, Nakhichevan, Lenkoran, Shemakha, Gyanja, Shusha, Sheki and Guba. The most famous Caucasian centre for the production of chased copper ware was Lagich located near the ancient cultural centre Shemakha.
Chased Copper Objects
Shyarbyat gaby (detail)
     The numerous architectural finds in Azerbaijan territory testify to the ancient development of copper ornamentation and its successive character. Some of these ornaments have survived to our days, others have changed their form, incorporating new motifs and subjects.
     The ornament is usually based on a rather complex composition which includes different themes and is executed in the form of straight and broken lines with a multitude of dots, triangles and rhombic figures the ornaments incorporated floral subjects, depiction of birds and animals, and later the sun and people.
     Most of the ornamented articles bear the master's mark, the date of completion and sometimes the owner's name. The diverse inscriptions including verses were usually engraved in Arabic. Ornaments were often intertwined with inscriptions executed to the beauty of the ornament.

HISTORY | Views: 554 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011




Azerbaijan National Costume
Man's outer garment.
Shemakha.
19th century
     Azerbaijan national costume is the result of the long and complicated processes involved in the development of the nation's material and intellectual culture.
     The history of a nation has a most direct bearing on the national costume. It reflects, more than any other element of material culture, the specific features of a nation and belongs to the more stable ethnic characteristics.
     National costume absorbs the ethnic, aesthetic and artistic features of a nation's creativity, which finds expression in the forms of garments, in the embroidery decoration in the art of weaving and the manner of knitting.
     In the 17th century Azerbaijan was a major silk producer in the Near East. Its main sericultural region was Shirvan and the largest silk manufacturing centres were Shemakha, Basgal, Gyanja, Sheki and Shusha. They produced wonderfully fine silk fabrics with an exquisitely attractive design, ladies' head kerchiefs and other commodities.
     The costume style was appropriate to the family status and age of the wearer. The costume of a maiden differed noticeably from that of a married woman. Young women wore particularly gay and attractive garments. The man's as well as woman's costume was basically the same in all the historical ethnographic zones of Azerbaijan. At the same time the man's costume bore the imprint of the wearer 5 social status.

HISTORY | Views: 994 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011



Azerbaijan Embroiderirs
Sazyani (applique). 19th century

     The techniques and compositions of Azerbaijan embroideries have reached us through the centuries, The Italian traveller Marco Polo (13th century) noted the beauty of silk wares from Shemakha and Barda.
     The English merchant and traveller Anthony Jenkinson (16th century) who had visited the local ruler in his summer residence marvelled at its splendour.
     "The king was sitting in a rich tent embroidered in silk and gold", he wrote, adding that the ruler's garments were decorated with pearls and gems.
     Embroideries were made on locally produced canaus, darai or velvet. The art prospered in Shemakha, Basgal, Gyanja, Sheki, Shusha and other Azerbaijan towns.

     The more popular and widespread type of embroidery in Azerbaijan were gold stitch, satin-stitch, chain-stitch, "bird's eye" technique, the use of spangles, glass beads and stamped plaques, quilting, applique, spiral and fillet work.
     Gold stitch on a very tight fabric is the oldest type. The embroideries used factory-made gold or silver threads. This type of embroidery was called gyulya-batyn.
     Chain-stitch type was widespread among the silk embroidery. In the 19th century the town of Sheki was the main producer of chain-stitch embroideries.
HISTORY | Views: 647 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011



Azerbaijan Art of Carpet Making
"Kilirn" Shirvan group.
Azerbaijan, beginning of the XX century.
Wool, hand made, 303xl89sm. density 70x90
Azerbaijan State Carpet and
National Applied An Museum
      Have a glance over Azerbaijan Republic, situated in the south-eastern part of the Caucasus, on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Eternal spaciousness and meadows, snowy tops of mountains and sandy seashores stretch before our eyes.
      Fertile soil, mild climate and warm sun rays have determined favourable conditions for flora. Almost each out of 6000 species of plants found on the territory of Azerbaijan has medical properties. For centuries Azerbaijan had been a country of various handicrafts, particularly carpet-making.
      Carpet-making is one of the ancient fields of the decorative-applied art of Azerbaijan. According to archaeological excavations in the territory of Azerbaijan and to literature sources, carpet-making had been conceived in ancient times.
      Carpets and carpet-ware made in Azerbaijan had repeatedly been glorified in historical books, classic and folk literature.
      Magically playing, the colours of carpets absorbed ruby brightness of pome-granate, golden brilliance of quince, copper of saffron and lilac tints of grapes.) Inexhaustible richness of colours, inimitable in its beauty interlacement of patterns, flight of artistic fantasy and consummate skill- that is Azerbaijan carpet.
      According to the historical sources, Azerbaijan was one of the most important centres of pile and flat-woven carpets production in the East in Middle Ages.
      Facts confirm, that north-eastern part of Azerbaijan was a centre of high quality carpets production in the VI-VII centuries.
      Famous Chinese traveller Khuan-Tesank, who visited Iran in the VII century, wrote in his memoirs: "Azerbaijan is one of the largest centres of the carpet-making".

HISTORY | Views: 991 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011




Archaeological Monuments
Grey pottery boot
- Shaped vessels with
white paste incrustation
(11-9th cc. B.C.).
     The ancient monuments of Azerbaijani culture show that its roots lie in hoary past. Evidence of this is the cave drawings discovered in Gobustan, the Absheron peninsula, Kelbadzhar and Gemigaya in Ordubad district.
     A special scientific interest is shown in two stone moulds for casting bronze articles, the evidence that the bronze implements and weapons discovered in Azerbaijani excavation sites were chiefly of local make.
     This fact has been confirmed by spectral analysis.




Archaeological Monuments
Grey pottery cencer
(10- 9th cc. B.C.).
Arrowheads (10- 9th cc. B.C)
.Bronze.
     In burial grounds and sites of former settlements dating to the 4th-3rd cc. B.C. there have been discovered numerous implements and weapons of iron.
     Attention is drawn to a large collection of lusterware and glazed ceramics discovered at excavation sites in Balakan, Baku, Barda, Ganja, Shemaha, all existing from medieval times.
     Glazed ceramics from these cities bears the distinctive traits of that period and embraces in terms of territory a wide range of Oriental countries.
     At the same time it has many local features.
     Many items boast a virtuoso technique and subtle elegance which make them veritable genres of Azerbaijani applied art.
     Many glazed dishes and cups bear paleographic inscriptions dating to the 9th-12th cc., the golden age of the art of ceramics.
     They have preserved several names of ceramics masters of those days, although unfortunately most of them have remained unknown.

HISTORY | Views: 460 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011



Antique and Medieval Coins
Arabian Caliphat,
anonym, Arran,
89 A.H.. dirham. Silver.
      Judging from the local finds, it was in the days of Alexander the Great that coins made their first appearance on the territory of Azerbaijan.
      These were silver coins - drachmas and tetradrachmas - of the great conqueror himself. Alongside the broad circulation of Hellenistic coins in ancient Azerbaijan - Atropatheneum and Caucasian Albania - the mintage of domestic means of circulation silver coins imitating those of Alexander the Great and the kings of Seleucia and Parthia - was launched here since the 3rd century B.C.
      The conquest of Azerbaijan by the Arabs in the 7th century was marked by an advancement of money circulation and increase in intensity of money minting. From the second half of the 9th century A. D: The coinage, in particular, silverirhams of such feudal Azerbaijan states as those of the Shirvanshahs-Mazyadids (in Shirvan), the Sajids, the Salarids, the Ravvadids, and the Sheddadids (in Arran) not only met the requirements of the domestic market of Azerbaijan, but also played the role of international money alongside the Caliphate's coins In the 15th-16th centuries Azerbaijan economy and culture blossomed forth anew. High-standard coins tangas of the Shirvan-shahs circulated throughout the whole of Transcaucasus, playing the role of a universal medium of payment. In the south of the country, in Arrant and Azerbaijan, several states sprang up one after another under the aegis of the Turkic dynasties of Gara-goyunlu and Ag-goyunlu, and the Sefevids, which minted not only silver but also gold coins.
      After the formation of the Sefevid state in the early 16th century, objective conditions were created there for the development of productive forces and the shaping up of spiritual values.
      The monetary system of the Sefevids based on a heavyweight 9.4-gramme silver unit reflected in a certain sense the economic and political might of that state.


HISTORY | Views: 491 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011



History


     Azerbaijan is one of the ancient countries in the world. Primitive men had inhabited in Azerbaijan since the existence of initial periods of humanity. Primitive man is considered to live 1,5 million years ago. Azikh cave is considered to be the third settlement of man for its antiquity.
    Ancient people living in Azerbaijan during the Middle Paleolithic Age had spread out wide territories. During the Upper Paleolithic Age, primitive men had lived in caves in different districts of Azerbaijan and protected themselves from natural diseases and attacks of wild animals. Before the Christ (B.C.) since 12th millennium, a new period had began in the development of tribal community in Azerbaijan territory. Arrows and bows had been invented during the Mesolite Age. Cattle breeding and tillage fields - farming had been created during the Neolith Age. During the Early Bronze Age (from the second half of fourth millennium to the end of the third millennium B.C.) the number of Azerbaijan population had increased, and there had been created kins of united tribes. Tribes and kins living in Azerbaijan territory during the Middle Bronze Age, united in the level of great kin unions. During The Last Bronze Age and the First Iron Age, study of art and pottery took a special place in Azerbaijan. The first signs of civilized society in Azerbaijan are considered to emerge in the third millennium. State structures like Aratta, Lullubi, and Kuti had been founded in the southern area of Azerbaijan during these periods. In the beginning of first millenium B.C., the state of Manna had been established in the South Azerbaijan. People of Manna believed in natural phenomenon, the sun and the moon. In the year of 321 B.C., Midia had become an independent state. At the beginning of sixth millennium B.C., Manna had been conquered by the state of Midia. From the beginning of the 8th century B.C. kimmer, skif and sack kins made marches to ancient lands of Azerbaijan, Front Asia. At the end of the 8th century, Azerbaijan was the part of the Empires of Midia and Ahamani.
      In the 4th century B.C., the state of Atropatena in the South of Azerbaijan the majority of people of which mainly consisted of Turkish ethnos and the state of Albania in the North of Azerbaijan had been created. After creation of these states, the process of creating a single public had begun in whole Azerbaijan. In the middle of three and seventh centuries, Azerbaijan was the part of the Sasani Empire. During the power of Sasani Zoroastrianism had become a Ruling Religion. The Power of Mehranis’ dynasty had began to rule in Albania at the beginning of the seventh century. This dynasty had been created in Girdiman province of Albania. The governor of Albania Javanshir (636-681 years) had become the governer of whole Albania. In 651 Arab Caliphate put an end to Sasani state. Islam religion created in Azerbaijan. In the year of 816 Babek began to rule Khurram movement, and in August 26, 837 after the last fights for Bezz castle Khurram movement was defeated. After the slavery continued until 600 years in Azerbaijan, the local states of Shirvanshahs, Sajis, Salaris, Revvads, Shaddadis’ had been created. Since the end of nineth century predatory marches of Slavs to Caspian lateral provinces has begun. In 914 Slavic armed workers detachments were destroyed by Turkish Moslem troops.

HISTORY | Views: 727 | Added by: shamsi_84 | Date: 07.05.2011